“Journalism that Matters’’

(Sung to the tune of Jacob ’s Ladder)


We are journos, getting sadder,

As the bottom line grows badder;

Losing readers to online chatter

We need Journalism That Matters;


Conversations, not a lecture,

Telling stories, not conjecture;

We know something’s got to give,

If battered journalists can live!


Master narrative, where are thee?

Can the public join the party?

We need hope, and joy and fun,’

Or stick a fork in us, we’re done;


Now we packing going home,

Taking with us, notes in a tome,

Will we change the world we live in?

That’s the challenge we’ve be given;


(For Best results, consume at least 2 glasses of wine prior to singing)

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Exploring A New Economic Model For A Newsroom Built On Community-Based, Interactive Journalism

SUMMARY: Could journalism survive and prosper under a different economic model built around an interactive, community-based news coverage philosophy?

This question engaged a group of talented legacy media journalists, New Media entrepreneurs, journalism think take executives and journalism professors who gathered during a weekend retreat in October, 2005.

Their thoughts and ideas were part of the Journalism That Matters conference hosted by the Fetzer Institute in Kalamazoo, Michigan.

Here is a working outline of the business plan and journalistic concept that emerged from these discussions.

The newsroom and news gathering

This operation begins with a newsroom. The newsroom will be built from scratch, outside the corporate and institutional structures of current big media companies;

The newsroom employs the most talented journalists available who are committed to community-driven, interactive journalism that works directly with citizens to conceive, shape and produce the news; Staffers may come from disaffected journalists and managers who have left the business, young New Media students and entrepreneurs, community members, including retirees,

The newsroom generates content through three tiers of news-gathering:

Tier 1) Hyper-local community-contributed content; stories, photos, e mails;

Tier 2) .Content shaped by reader suggestions and content gathered with the help of journalists in the newsroom. Examples: aggregation of blogs, summary of e-mail inquiries, etc.

Tier 3) Big –J stories written, photographed, recorded by professional journalists

The newsroom presents news on the most appropriate platforms for the audiences being served. All journalists need some familiarity with multimedia presentation.

Community connections to the newsroom.

The newsroom goes where it is invited and works directly with the community to define a news-gathering philosophy and establish what the community expects from the newsroom.

A community oversight board serves as board of directors for the newsroom.

All journalists work directly with smaller groups of community members who have special interests and knowledge of topics of particular interest to the community.

A community marketplace of story ideas serves as a key driver for where the journalists focus their attention and work, and where community contributions are sought and developed.

The newsroom organizes community forums, conversations, seminars to help work through issues and challenges facing the community. Publishes results, keeps conversations going.

An open-source model for news gathering allows everyone in the community to community to review stories in progress, comment on them, offer suggestions, leads, and additional information.

Community self-publishing allows community members to post community items, calendar items, neighborhood news, local sports, for others to see.

Tracking, posting and publishing results from electronic spiders and robots search the Web for daily content about the community developed by others around the region, nation, and world. Edited by new kind of `triage editors.’

Develop news bus that visit key public gathering sites/events where people are invited to contribute to the news content. Examples: Fans at stadiums after big games. Movie theaters after opening of new films to get instant reviews.

Build a Wi-Fi network in the community; provide free or at a discounted rate low-cost laptops or personal computing devices to community members so they can access news content online; possibly as part of paid subscription, or Cable TV business model.

New business model to support this newsroom

This model operates with a positive cash flow, but is more akin to a non-profit organization, a foundation, or a co-op and does not assume the profit margins of today MSM.

The newsroom seeks community investments in the newsroom. These could come from a variety of sources including;

  • Sell shares; organize a co-op, in the local news operation.
  • Developing a `utilities model’ whereby a community taxing agency or non-profit agency offers regular support to the newsroom, and has some oversight responsibility for it.
  • A cable TV model, where users pay a monthly fee and can access a tier of services (extra sports, more on business, etc.) for different fees.
  • Supporters who `buy’ certain added content features, reporting efforts and pay through a `tip jar’ for content they like.

Some funding will come from alternative sources where conversations occur in a community.

For example, the organization would buy and then develop a News Café that sells coffee, desserts, etc. and serves as a community gathering place where café visitors can post community news, answer newspaper-generated e mail questions, write a story, respond to a story or interview request. And, community members can come and write, speak, sing, with their commentary posted as part of the news report.

The organization could buy and develop a community center where events are held, concerts are held, town hall meetings are convened. These events, in turn, would lead to conversations and news coverage for the newsroom to track and report.

Ask foundations to fund a test of this model as an alternative to today’s media and as a way to build community.

Sell online/print ads.

Work with local activist groups, churches, unions, retirees who might want to support a different business model.

Where and how to launch

Option 1: A smaller town that isn’t served by a newspaper, TV station, radio, or served poorly by these media.

Option 2: City model: Identify a segment of a larger urban area that is not being served by dominant media.

Option 3: Affinity/non-geographic model; identify an ethnic group, age group, or interest group that is not being served.

Next steps:

Identify core group interested in pursuing the model.

Identify communities that could be receptive to the project.

Meet with the community to pitch the idea and gauge reception.

Test it.

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What I want J-Schools to be teaching students

Convener”: Sue Ellen Christian

At Sue Ellen’s request, people wrote ideas on slips of paper and gave them to her:

Ethics – how to handle tragedies and not freak out

Asking questions, listening, first hand, eyewitness reporting

How to do an interview

Teach a variety of multimedia skills

Give them a sense of hope for the J. industry

Cultural literacy – and fast – by 2050 U.S. will be a majority of people of color

Writing for the web from breaking news to blogging

Let students design an alternative media enterprise for the city in which they attend school

Please teach them real “Marshall McLuhan”

Journalism students should learn to stimulate the community, to ask good questions of each other and politicians

Make sure they appreciate that news is a conversation, not a lecture

Technorati.com, blogher.com

Explore what journalism is and what it is not

Make them familiar with technology and how to do news on it

Demystify technology, encourage and allow playfulness with it

Ways to incorporate and collaborate different media forms

Ways to avoid being a lazy journalist

Teach citizens to be better journalists. What they need to do as personal journalists.

Teach media literacy and understanding of what each media offers and what doesn’t offer

See Berkeley journalism school website

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Let’s Make Up New Storytelling Forms

Convener:     Nora Paul

Reporter:      Nora Paul


  • Charlotte Hall
  • Ken Sands
  • Matt Thompson
  • Jan Schaffer
  • Florangela Davila
  • Chris Peck
  • Sue Ellen Christian


New Story Forms session 1 pg 34

The group became a great brain dump of story forms that people have seen (and tried) that could be part of a richer mix of media both online and in print. Following are these ideas and some of the discussion about the challenges of getting “inverted pyramid” trained reporters to think of new ways to approach storytelling.

Some of the challenges:

  • Getting reporters to get away from the idea that length determines their value (that you are more admired if you get to do the 20” story than if you do a rich cutline.)
  • How to get narrative writing to be more emotional
  • Creating a vocabulary about different story forms so that can be part of the conversation about covering a story, which form would best serve the reader
  • J-schools still teach inverted pyramid as the predominant text / story form
  • How can online be used to continually evolve a story – it doesn’t have to have a finite end.
  • Why don’t newspapers do more photojournalism essays: It is a struggle to provide pictorial stories in print…can fall flat (at Newsday tried to do a year in the life of new immigrants, it didn’t really work
  • One of the things we need from journalism education is how to be a wire service reporter for online…how to write the 3 paragraph story in 3 minutes, then add some more facts, then add some more…evolving report
  • Challenges of writing great headlines, ones that hook you (Netscape homepage does this well)
  • Maps are powerful story forms – need more map makers in newsrooms
  • Look to the sports desk for inspiration about new story forms – they have a strong voice, do more visually.
  • We need to reinvent campaign coverage (see notes from the “Master Narrative” group…)
  • The “tails” for “tales”:
    • The breaking news tale – what is happening
    • The next day tale – what happened
    • The long tail of the tale – reactions, feedback, comments, links…

Some of the ideas:

  • Pop-up Music Video: story about a woman leaving to go to Nashville, Matt Thompson at Fresno Bee online
  • Info-graphics: creative use of infographics – ie: analysis of how many times Bush said particular words in his State of the Union speech
  • Charticles: Charlotte said they are trying to figure out more stories that are best told visually – for example, explanatory stories like having a poll on growth with just a “chunklet” of story text and the rest of the story told with the graphic data
  • 1st Person Narrative: Orlando sent two reporters to cover Katrina and asked that they write as eyewitnesses rather than typical reporters – “What I Saw”. New Yorker articles are exemplars of great 1st person writing.
  • Blogging: Blogging is a story form in and of itself. Successful use of blogging online wouldn’t translate well to print – for example, the Sentinel had a blogger doing minute by minute updates about the shuttle launch – would not have been good in the paper, it was old. Matt talked about blogging the Vice President debates, could put in commentary and opinions, do live fact checking. Blogging in news sites often serve as a notes column which then become written up in more formal news article form.
  • Wiki-reporting: Esquire reporter put a draft article about wikis on wikipedia and let the world edit it. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WP:ITAAW
  • Play with different designs: what if there was something like the Griffin and Sabine books – story told in letters – graphicsParrot pg 37                              
  • Epistemological approach: Slate is good at using this dialogic form of storytelling
  • Fast / vital facts: Provide a box with the fast facts, “what you need to know” for readers for any news story – Commercial Appeal
  • Impact Box: Provide “why it matters” from different perspectives: ie: in a story on social security, try providing information like: here’s why it matters to you 24 year olds, to you 54 year olds, to you 74 year olds.
  • Telling the story through sound and image: emotional content can sometimes best be made by getting the reporter out of the story and let the participants tell it.
    • Back to School http://www.spokesmanreview.com/blogs/video/play.asp?file=090605_school2&filetype=swf
    • Multimedia Obits http://www.spokesmanreview.com/library/valley/obits/cover.asp
  • Sing it – don’t say it: I Did it Bi-Way – a column about the mayor of Spokane http://www.spokesmanreview.com/tools/story_pf.asp?ID=87504
  • Making the Global Local: Snapshots – have a national / international news event put into local context (population comparison, size…) Memphis Commercial Appeal
  • “A Thousand Words”: As in a picture is worth a thousand words – have some photos that make you go “hmmmm” (Memphis Commercial Appeal)
  • “Life is Short: Autobiography as Haiku”: Washington Post http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/10/01/AR2005100101170.html?sub=AR
  • Vidlogs: Use music and voices in the story presentation online: Rocket Boom http://www.rocketboom.com/vlog/ MN Stories http://www.mnstories.com
  • News: The Screenplay: Try to put the words of a debate between two people in screenplay format.
  • Play a game: City Council Survivor Game (vote off the city council people) – Topeka http://cjonline.com/survivor/
  • A Tale from Two Sources: have two versions of an informational trip – Grand Canyon – New York Times http://www.nytimes.com/2005/10/06/science/sciencespecial2/06canyon.html?adxnnl=1&adxnnlx=1128813966-QJlaWLr/uF2wjxBa/w+L6g
  • Mad Lib the State of the Union Address: why not…might make more sense
  • Jib Jab the News: Washington / Washington State football rivalry http://www.komotv.com/news/story.asp?ID=34041

Faces pg 38

  • Annotate the News: James Fallows did an annotation of the State of the Union in Atlantic, Jan. 23, 2004 *
  • Harper’s Index: great story form, put takes a real knack to pull it off http://www.harpers.org/HarpersIndex2005.html **
  • Animate the news: Mark Fiore’s editorial cartoon animations

Cartoon pg 39


Huckleberries Online


  • Mini-docs: http://www.fresnobee.com/rites/creative/
  • Attribution style: instead of breaking up the flow of a narrative with “according to…” do blanket attributions at the end of the story (Chicago Tribune – tornado)(AP story about woman who was kidnapped)
  • Provide different viewpoints on the same page: Watch Blog http://www.watchblog.com/

New Story Forms session 2 pg 35

Memorable quotes:

  • If print is going to be successful we have to find something that is distinctively our voice. Charlotte Hall
  • We aren’t hearing enough authentic voices in print – their voices get filtered. Charlotte Hall
  • We have to battle against the idea that your value is based on the length of the story. Charlotte Hall
  • The emotional impact of photography is very powerful.
  • Newspapers are hesitant to be snide, satirical, funny – how can you get reporters to do some things in a funny, light-hearted way? Chris Peck
  • Do journalism educators need to throw out the inverted pyramid? No! but do teach multiple story forms.
  • I challenge reporters to think about how they would tell this story to their mother, to their lawyer, to their 3-year-old. Charlotte Hall
  • How do we write headlines that prompt action, that are a tease more than a sell. Chris Peck
  • I got an anonymous note saying “I hope as you make the paper more visual that you won’t forget about long story starts on Page One.” Charlotte Hall
  • We all have egos and want to do a good job. If we do these shorter forms, we need to get feedback. Florangela Davila
  • Find and use those “learning moments” in the news. Chris Peck

* Atlantic Unbound | January 23, 2004
The State of the Union Address

Annotated by James Fallows, an Atlantic national correspondent and a former presidential speechwriter
Mr. Speaker, Vice President Cheney, members of Congress, distinguished guests, and fellow citizens:

America this evening is a nation called to great responsibilities. And we are rising to meet them. [The speech gets off to a mildly unusual start. Last year, the president opened with the one-two introductory combo that is standard for SOTU addresses. First, he reminded the audience of the historic importance of a president’s annual report to Congress; then, he revealed his judgment about how the “state of the union” stands. Last year, as a reminder, he said in the second paragraph of his speech that “our union is strong.” This year, the verdict doesn’t come until the sixth paragraph, below, where the union is now “confident and strong.”]

** Harper’s Index for September 2005

     Posted on Monday, October 3, 2005.

Increase in the total value of U.S. residential property since 2000, expressed as a percentage of GDP : 60[Federal Reserve Board (Washington)/Bureau of Economic Analysis (Washington)]

Increase in the value of all U.S. stocks between 1995 and 2000, as a percentage of GDP : 59[U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission/Bureau of Economic Analysis (Washington)]

***  Monitor pg 40
from the October 05, 2005 edition – http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/1005/p06s01-wogn.html

Reporters on the Job

Tip of an Indonesian Iceberg: The genesis of today’s story about Indonesia’s battle to define Islam was prompted by a moment of curiosity, and became something of a revelation to correspondent Tom McCawley.

Tom was working on another assignment with a photographer who mentioned that he’d seen a blockade outside the headquarters of Liberal Islam Network. Tom made a few calls, and realized he’d stumbled on a defining war of ideas.

“It’s easy to cover breaking news events and not ever see these major subterranean battles between people with different visions of the same faith. It’s theoretical but there are real practical consequences,” he says.

David Clark Scott, World editor


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A proposal for a West Oakland neighborhood Web site as part of the Oakland Tribune

Convener:      Jane Stevens


  • Dan Gillmor
  • Stacy Lynch
  • Silja Talvi
  • Karen Toering
  • Lew Friedland
  • Lisa Cohen
  • Jarah Euston
  • Ralph Gage


New Story Forms pg 31

Home page has its own url, with Oakland Tribune branding. For West Oakland, it is the absolute portal to the Oakland Tribune and other resources in Oakland. A link to the site also appears on the Tribune Web site. It provides a rich, vivid picture of the community. Its content is solution-oriented. It contains issue “shells” that follow an issue to its logical conclusion. The voices of the community are as prominent as the professional journalists’ stories. It is a place for conversation, for stories, for information.

Site contains:

  • an interactive, layered map that can be annotated by community members
  • data, such as property sales, new business licenses, health updates
  • oral histories that are streamed and podcast
  • entertainment listings
  • restaurant listings
  • local sports
  • resources, such as directory of services by nonprofits, local community groups
  • school updates
  • calendar
  • automatic advertising taker/builder and classified advertising intake system
  • community celebrations
  • local bloggers
  • blogs by mayor, congressional representative, city council representative
  • search by zipcode
  • ability to create sub-neighborhood sites

Types of stories that professional journalists do:

  • Ask the community, which has four or five different ethnic groups.
  • Report on community celebrations.
  • Cover stories ignored or left out, such as tensions between ethnic groups.

Considerations for implementation:

  • Free archives, with keyword links to stories.
  • Software to screen forums and bloggers in which first ten posts of contributor are vetted by editor; ban abusers so that their post does not appear on site, but looks like it does on their computer.
  • Forums require registration with a valid email address.

How to engage community:

  • Create a community advisory committee.
  • Create a “third place” in the community, a place where the Tribune reporter interacts with members of the community. Could be a coffee house; could be a storefront with computer terminals and a coffee bar. Comes equipped with scanners, etc., so that community members can do stories; also a meeting place for people to meet with newspaper or other experts (local records, health & wellness).


  • High school Web sites that link to West Oakland site – partner with Center for Digital Storytelling to train students to tell own stories that appear on high school and West Oakland Web site.
  • Partner, broker a deal for each high school to cover an issue, print broadsheet for each and insert into print paper, assign news staff and designers to help.
  • Daily pdf of neighborhood news that can be posted in neighborhood businesses.
  • Youth site
  • Parents site


  • Two years to establish, at least two academic cycles

How to start:

  • Make a list we can do ASAP
  • Make it appealing – how? Ask the community!
  • Launch before you’re ready
  • Remember that the constituents not covered are the most important.
  • What do you say when they ask why ANG is finally doing this…”We’re investing in the community, want to work with you.”


  • Berkeley Parents Network (clone this, says Dan)
  • Real Change (Seattle newspaper by and for homeless)
  • 826 San Francisco (writing workshops for community)
  • Youth Media Council (Oakland)


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Opportunities For Change

Convener: Melinda Wittstock

Reporter: Jim Shaffer

Attendees: Ken Berents, Bill Drasean, Jonathan Lawson, Jean Min, Jim Shaffer, Duane Stoltzfus, Michael VanBuren,

MW: Key question for session: Any positive opportunities in the upcoming changes?

First, what changes do we see coming?

KB:    They are here already!

Internet; Satellite radio will cause demand reduction for land radio within 5 years. Local radio signals will go silent.

TV margins are declining.

BD:     WiFi. Electronic dissemination of “print”

MV:    Podcasting

Duane: 1. Low expectations of young people, both for journalism and for their interest and/or ability to connect with the broader world around them … fragmentation of interests/audience.

**                    2. At least signals being vacated imply an opportunity for others to move in.

JS:       1. Decline of mass marketing at just the same time that the traditional add-supported media are becoming less effective as mass marketing vehicles – a double whammy.

  1. Collapse of economic models that have traditionally supported journalism.
  2. Fragmentation of audiences.

JM:     The “bell curve” is flattening. The are fewer mass products in the middle; more products and audiences on the fringe. Everything is more specialized.

**        JL:       … reduced local news production .. provides an opportunity for new entrants and

new services from existing players.

KB: Example – Clear Channel created opportunity for Journal Communications in Milwaukee.

Other observations about opportunities

**        MW: See a juxtaposition of fragmentation of audience with consolidation of media …

creating opportunities for niche businesses.

(Discussion of convergence)

MW: Not all journalists can do it all.

JM: Seen it work in Seoul …sometimes with surprising opportunities, such as when the I/N enlarged their broadcast audience by pulling in distant time zones.

MW: Suggests the ultimate independence of content from vehicle

(Discussion of the role of trust and lack of trustable sites in the cacophony of the I/N )

**        Several: So there’s an opportunity to create trust in an undisciplined environment.

KB: Trust relates to brand. Need to build trusted brands.

(Discussion of need for targeted advertising)

Duane: Two types of trust. 1. Trust in the organization’s content and editing. 2. Credibility that the organization can add to other sites by linking to them, effectively certifying them as OK.

**        MW: Another opportunity is the immediacy of the I/N. Instant information.

BD: Some sites current but less trusted. Others more trusted.

**        (Discussion of multi-purposing news)

Examples: BBC, Nicholas Kristof,

KB: Times Select also expands revenues for the journalists.

**       Discussion of the opportunity of the I/N as a media that strengthens relationships

JM: Younger audiences interested in connectivity … important for media sites to capitalize on this.

MW: Direct access to news sources. KB: Or their low levels staff …

JS: And to and among other news consumers. Text messaging. Chat sites. Bulletin boards

Many: So an opportunity of the new media is to fulfill a need to build relationships both among news consumers and between consumers and sources. This leads to a blurred distinction between “users” and “generators” of news.

JM: Involvement of the people with the stories leads to commitment and passion about the media.

(Ken B leaves; Michael V leaves)

MW: How to accommodate the exploring/browsing need?

(Discussion of the pay per click or pay per package models)

JS: Had some experience with that. The technology works, but the investment bankers weren’t convinced.

(Back to user participation with stories)

**        JM: In Korea, some sites get huge discussions going at the end of posted articles, and they

charge the users to stay on and converse. … “Reverse versioning” … Some people seeking credibility of adjacency

… vanity publishing

Selected wrap-up

**        BK: If we can be electronic, local news can be both more specialized and more current.

JS: We just have to let go of our cherished one to many models and our definition of journalism by vehicle, rather than content.

MW: There IS opportunity … need to separate content from delivery vehicle.

Summary – Opportunities identified:

  1. Signals being vacated imply an opportunity for others to move in.
  2. Reduced local news production … provides an opportunity for new entrants.
  3. A juxtaposition of fragmentation of audience with consolidation of media creates new opportunities for niche businesses.
  4. There’s an opportunity to create trust, and, hence, value, in an undisciplined environment.
  5. Immediacy of the I/N. Instant information.
  6. Multi-purposing news expands both audience and revenues.
  7. Development of the I/N as a media that strengthens relationships
  8. Paid vanity publishing
  9. With I/N, local news can be both more specialized and more current.
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How to render America’s crumbling master narrative as journalism?

Convener/Reporter: Jan Schaffer

Dan Gillmor
Matt Shepherd
Ken Sands
Peggy Holman
Steve Silha
Eric Nelson
Eric Nelson

Discussion Master Narratives p 21

Jan//Overall recap: Are we so busy covering the “news” that we are missing the big story of what is really happening in America? I’m concerned that we are on the verge of becoming the next Great Britain or worse. China is the emergent superpower. And China is not a democracy –which has ramifications for journalism. No one is covering this.

What does a journalism look like that examines how the U.S. is faring from a 50,000 foot view? How do you do journalism that covers the values that Americans pay lip service to [but don’t live by]? Is journalism complicit in failing to cover the issues that really speak to the future of our democracy?

Ken: One of the current turnoffs is journalism’s current practice only covering What Happened Yesterday. No one is covering the bigger news.

Matt: What Happened Yesterday has a very agreed-upon framework. The questions are very anticipated [at press conferences] everyone knew what questions journalists were going to ask.

Peggy: Coverage of APME — They were covering the sessions, but no one was really covering the experience of being in that room.
NGO’s are doing important work.. stories that could be told could make an incredible difference. People could tap into that and say, “I could do that.”

Jan: What is it like to be in America today? What are citizens really fearful of…? What are the things that are broadly known, but never spoken of – or you don’t see in journalism. What would a journalism that covers these silent issues look like?

Matt: I’d like to get all the press releases that were circulated to all groups every day… [have citizens, interest groups] compare them… so we could compare that layer of Meta data with the stories that we were being presented with every day.
Really get at the story behind the story.

Follow the money… I get knowledge of what happened… but that info. is completely peripheral to what companies were behind each news story… I want that information to be more transparent.

Sarah: There is an assumed cynicism… we rarely have that cynicism challenged.

Jan: Why is there not more rage/outrage at the way things are going in US?

Jarah: I think people are exhausted

Sarah: Or scared. We would not just be talking about how journalism do their jobs… we’d be talking about the whole country.

Jarah: Citizen journalism leading to civic action is one way…

Jan: Is journalism complicit in covering up or failing to cover the story?

Dan: Complicity doesn’t mean conspiracy.

Sarah: There are huge things that are happening… Id we changed the way we covered the war on terror that could change the world.
Most of our [US] relationships with the world are vastly under treated.

Matt: We don’t know what the metrics or characteristics are of empire, of fascism, of cold war…

Dan: The first time you hear about something is after the vote is taken, which is much too late. …. We’re not engaging people when they could do something about it.

Florangelo: It’s too easy to keep to the routines, use the same muscles. The Arab community was not on our radars till post 9-11. They were invisible.

Dan: That’s one more reason to encourage citizens media.

Matt: People don’t know at all what the true consequences are of a particular bill [in Congress] because we don’t know the broad financial and practical realities involved…
The NYT magazine went looking back over many years at a series of completely innocuous, arcane energy bills.. This takes time, energy and money. These laws were the product [and goal] of billions of dollars of lobbying… in this case from energy companies.

Bills are passed without notice or remarks.
This is the sort of parsing of data that ordinary people would be willing to do.
Dan: There are conversations going about about covering the reconstruction of the Gulf Coast after Katrina. This is something too big for a single news organization… Get a coalition of citizens and news organizations together.

This is perfect concept for breaking a story … FOIA the contracts… compile data… collaborate… NYT has 70 people on this story.

Dan: Every tax bill is filled with things… What if you passed it out to thousands of lawyers who could deconstruct pieces of the legislation… add their expertise… before Congress takes a final vote… This is another category of breaking stories into little pieces.

Matt: Get bloggers (indy media) involved in the data… we need all of those capabilities

Get people to tape every public appearance… post it…
Matt: I don’t think the press should be going from junket to junket…. Get other people to examine the transcripts.

Dan: Catalogue the tape so that over time you have everything a candidate has said… about health care… or defense…
Can search presidential speeches.

Jarah: Daily Kos did it with contracts…

Dan: The ACLU is turning into a journalistic organization… the Red Cross…the Heritage Foundation is getting into journalism…
Foundations are getting into areas [and reporting] that they care about.

Matt: There could be really good projects for a foundation to take on

Money is one metric for the decaying master narrative…
What about Values – American values??

Matt: Adam Cruickshank dreams of being a Thomas Friedman… being able to articulate his theory of the world… talking about practical things and events thru his lens.

Liberalism and conservatism… Primacy of society and primacy of the individual… that these things should always be in some tension.

Dan: The Radical Center… group of people who think things are going the wrong way and are just waiting for a leader.. someone to tell the truth… ask for sacrifice at some levels….who will say we’re really screwed if we don’t take this on.

Jarah: I don’t think anyone talking about the individual any more. Conservatives have moved from the free market [quadrant] to the totalitarianism box. They want to control the economy and civil liberties.

And the American left… in the context of the global left, is not very left.

Matt: Inquiry into our place in the world happens far too little.

Eric: Is there a role for journalism in this discourse, left and right is not readily…. anymore
Is there a new way of looking at reality that extremists don’t get…
New way of getting transformation … so that you can get synergy and change…

Dan: It gets down to recognizing really complex issues and embracing them
If you think Iraq is a problem, wait for bird flu…
No one is talking about this.

Matt: With near hysteria over Y2K, we got through it, avoided the problem.

Dan: Bird flu may take democracy down with it… we’ll have martial law.

What are some of the things we can do:
` You order the drug industry to make more vaccine
The US acted so slowly that now it is last in line, behind most other countries, in getting supplies.
But that would be against the free market.

[To talk about values] All these things need to be on the table:
Increase taxes
Social Security
Senior drug bills

Matt: If you put everything on the table, you’d get a different picture than you’d get in general
[Budget game]… things that were defunded were the military, manned space flight.

Florangela: Newspapers have a fear of linking… give people a choice and present it in a way that people could see history.

Chicago Trib chronicled every kid who died in a year… you could see patterns.

City Council budget… show what is changing graphically on a page… let people see how some categories are getting bigger.

Jan: What about addressing money fatigue and putting some context in stories about millions or billions of dollars… Say $8 million would buy… x. y. z…

Matt: You can’t present a false equivalency

Dan: You could also have the community think about [weigh in on] these stories that we miss. We can’t possibly do everything… but we can sure ask.

Eric: Do you think people are willing to make a decision on whether to rebuild New Orleans?
Dan: With the port, clearly there needs to be a city there.
Eric: Maybe you need to build a mass transit system… let people live 20 minutes inland and ride to their jobs.

Is the US public invited into this conversation? Do they have a role in making the choices?

Jarah: Now creationism is part of the American narrative

Dan. People around the world are agog by an America where science is being trumped by faith.
Tech industry won’t weigh in on this… People in leadership don’t want to anger anybody. Their excuse is it’s bad for business.

Matt: Another part of the master narrative: Jihad vs. McWorld.

Post conference note from Nancy Margulies:

A couple of times at the salon the topic of how we can’t conceive of a BILLION came up. Here is something that helps with that dilemma:

The next time you hear a politician use the word “billion,” casually,
think about whether you want the politician spending your tax money.

A billion is a difficult number to comprehend, but one advertising
agency did a good job of putting that figure into perspective in one of its releases.

a. A billion seconds ago it was 1959.

b. A billion minutes ago Jesus was alive.

c. A billion hours ago our ancestors were living in the Stone Age.

d. A billion days ago no-one walked on two feet on earth.

e. A billion dollars ago was only 8 hours and 20 minutes, at the rate our government spends it.

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Is Journalism Without Advertising Possible?

Convener: Chris Peck

Jane Stevens
Lisa Cohen (transcriber)
Lew Freidland
Florangela Davila
Ralph Gage
Michael VanBuren
Ken Berents
Cindy Zehnder
Nancy Margioles
Jan Shaffer
Vivian Jones
Stacy Leach
Jim Shaffer
Sue Ellen Christian

Lew suggests buying a TV station and run it as a positive cash-flow generating model. Economic Models 1 pg 8Experiment is to see whether you can do excellent journalism will people buy that paper or watch that station? If you cut out extra profit drained out by Wall Street, can you make enough to get by on? He believes yes.

Ken asks how do you pay for it—especially as a broadcast property?

Lew has no problem with advertising…sell as much as you can within the limits of the quality of the product itself, and you might experiment with other possible revenue streams. Can bottom line sustain production? Can retention be maintained? Lew believes that Foundation support isn’t realistic. What about co-opting? It’s essentially a private-leveraged buy-out – Milwaukee Journal Sentinel is an example, though expansion leads to decision to raise public money. He wants a public trust with profit.

Chris suggests getting out other ideas.

Jan Shaffer says foundation support won’t happen. Reminds of Smithsonian Magazine is a private trust…makes a huge profit, and could grow it by putting it on the newsstand. She wonders why there isn’t more of a model for user fees…taxes on certain models, though there would have to be a public service component.

Chris agrees… go to a community, say you need local news and we’ve got to assess the community a certain amount for that, comparative to garbage, water etc. There would be a board assigned… not a hands-on board. Ken asks how to keep politics out of it? Chris says school boards are political, but able to deal with it. The fee is could be like a cable TV bill… could find a family-owned newspaper that would do there.

Jan says some papers do that Independent Newspapers who went to the IRS for a special exemption. Been in existence for 10 years.

Jonathon has 5 different models:

  1. Community-supported journalism i.e. Community radio, national grassroots, free speech radio, Democracy Now, etc. Paul Jay’s project “Independent World Television” Jay is out of Toronto and is launching a satellite new network with news out of Canada and India –will staff working news room. Funding model will be viewer-supported.
  2. Subscriber model like BBC
  3. Government supported – watch what’s going on in South America and Venezuela but counter-hegemonic to CNN
  4. Telesur will likely expand beyond S America
  5. Producer-owned blogs
  6. Public News Service – a national organization run out of Boulder, CO. print and radio journalists working in 16 states supported by community organization like unions, environmental groups, etc. Wire service reporting loosely steered by interest groups by editorially free. Offer items to newspapers and commercial radio stations.

Economic Models 2 pg 9Stacy: Somehow we have to get consumers to pay for more of media. None of us want to be in a position to need a lot of money to have to get news, but she is suspicious of models that get to far away from a monetary connection with people who want to use it. What about a premium service for special news? Could be areas like sports and lifestyles subjects that they’re willing to pay more for? In addition to non-journalism related areas like selling archives. Has to be valuable to consumers. Papers are finding it increasing difficult People will pay $45 for Starbucks but not 75 cents for a paper. Times Select is now doing this. AJC has experimented with it, but it didn’t work.

Jim Shaffer… adds “open source software model” where there are a few recognized high priests of standards but basically everyone contributes and there is a culture that establishes standards. If we buy something to experiment with it, let’s not tie ourselves to a medium…. Buy a “newsroom” and figure out how to adjust and disseminate information… open ideas. Take news piece and start from zero.

Duane talks historical models with ad –free newspapers Scripps “The Day Book” in 1910 in Chicago. Based on a penny a day from subscribers… didn’t make money in part because of newsprint costs, but were successful in offering other types of stories. Also “PM” in New York. Marshal Fields financed. Did news well, but there were organization problems getting items to premium subscribers. Introduced innovative things by reporting on other industries…again newsprint was critical cost.

Melinda says public radio has focused on diversification of funding. I.e. Starbucks, and fund drives. Especially local. Number is listeners People are paying stations. Stations are paying producers of content. Producers have diversified funding prospects from stations, donors, foundation. Underwriting, so if one piece drops out, you have other options to pick up.

Jane Stevens says the idea of buying a newsroom is a great idea because it addresses new mediums. Carefully determine pillars of information that you are going to cover. Let go of some subjects because they know other places do a better job and they can’t compete. Locally you can jettison national/international coverage unless is relates to local. With local emphasis you must consider state coverage… can local stations band together to cover the state capital? Can also add in Omai news model for individuals to offer payment. Jane feels local advertising is essential because it’s content and part of the conversation.

Jean Omai news model… consider idea of news as public utility. Lots of people are willing to contribute news and not work as full-time journalists. You might have a place of “Marketplace of Ideas” where people can vote for things they want covered. Check credibility will be assured by the governing body. Combine public utility idea with pay plan. Exploit people’s desire to be involved in production of news. Taxpayer money pays for level of news nobody wants to pay for but they need.

Karen (Beverly) is interesting in building on ascertainment model that requires some regular system that assesses what the community needs and if those needs aren’t met, there is someone who is accountable to make sure that happens. Combine that with open-source model.

Lew says difference between niche models (NPR, Times Select, Smithsonian) and mass models (includes local newspaper, buying a newsroom) Are mass model a state-supported model, a co-op model, a market model which journalists buy and run the institutions.

Chris says what if we go out and buy a newsroom tomorrow that is a free-floating form of journalists that can gather information and tells stories and can disseminate across many mediums.

Ken B asks whether the consumers even care?

Jan Shaffer says small “j” community” reader created and reader-directed content and thinks there is an electronic component that can be significant

Stacy is concerned with idea of “utility model” is a terrible idea because it brings to mind all of the negatives… arrogance, bureaucratic, etc. She doesn’t think it leads to less accountability. She says difference pricing plans are an option… but consumers need to be able to continue to call the shots and pull their support. Utility can be unresponsive.

Michael has different take. He thinks every institution has someone looking over their shoulder…whether stockholders, GM or whomever. With public utility there is at least a public utility is generally motivated by the idea that they’re serving the public.

Chris says get rid of the idea of public utility and change to public service. Now many media organization have to opt for best business decision in the short term,

Cindy says TVW is as close to that model as anyone in room. TVW doesn’t have an editorial policy, but they are not tool of one advocacy group or political party. State contracts with TVW to produce coverage. Board consists of political statesmen. They’ve learned they only succeed with they represent all viewpoints and don’t advocate.

Chris asks whether what we’re talking about here ultimately leads to CSPAN or whether there is a market for that? Cindy says TVW is a part of the overall mix of what’s offered.

Lisa News room idea can bring journalists and new media together form all stripes…. Let content drive the medium Ralph want to try hybrid “value-added” model – if he has a cable system in the community, that entitles you to print product with it and sell advertising (Gray Communications in Atlanta has a deal with Adelphia Cable) LA Times did that in Orange County and it worked.

Jean says making people pay for story makes people have a stake in story. Instead of passive, you become active member of the process. You are not paying for medium; you are paying for the story. Essentially becoming an investor in the story.

Jim agrees with Jean, says in Sunday paper, people can make choices and vote. Merge open source with utility is a clearinghouse. Ken says there isn’t good journalism in weekly papers. Florangela says we have to broaden our standards of acceptability. Maybe we need only niche papers.

Jane says we don’t need an actual room for a newsroom. Maybe just start on web or in a neighborhood in a metro area…start slow to get people to pay. Part of process is not just Big J journalism. Maybe could spin off print one day a week.

Ralph says that’s how they began with Laurence.com. Now they have a weekly paper delivered free and are daily on the web. Now they’re being invited into other towns.

Cindy says this is going to take multiple solutions. Some will work in some areas…others in other place and environments.

Melinda says if you take clearinghouse open-source ideas and training places that are just like hubs, but if there is a virtual newsroom but have a place to go to learn their craft. How can people come together and work together.

Chris asks if there can be template? At football game have people fill it in

Lew is concerned about labor economics. Most of us do value professionalism in journalism. That requires people to be paid and have health benefits. Lew is running workshops in Madison to learn journalism for neighborhood writers, but no one wants to read their stuff day in and day out.

Some of us can drop in and out but most need a salary. We won’t be able to support all of journalism without having some who are very skilled. So how do we support the full tier of journalism?

What if economics only allowed for one station/newspaper?

Cindy says this is the old building trades model… having an organization that supports your work and you may go out and contract your work but there is an organization that supports your work, that trainings and helps set standards and may help dispatch you to work. People play union dues for that and it works. Get apprenticeships, etc. Utilitarian model

Jonathon is concerned that the single newsroom idea which is limited to single editorial board which can be a problem. Also public broadcasting has been shrinking and funding is shrinking. It’s important to figure out ways to expand the public sphere starting with supporting political changes that bring more money into that sphere. CPB is a train wreck and needs reconstruction. Forget what has been the case… what should it look like? What are potential effective models? We need mainstream press to elevate that conversation.

Jane says combining experienced journalists with community journalists is being done in sports pages now in Laurence.

Duane says we do need advertising and remember advertising is content. An alternative could be that advertising has to meet certain criteria to pass muster. Duane thinks it’s possible without having heavy expenses on newsroom side.

Radio may be under the most pressure of all because of satellite competition. It’s being restructured as a subscription model.

What is you go to a community of about 10k without a dominant TV or newspaper or where it’s being done so poorly it needs competition. Set it up… we’re going to have a place where people can have a voice to vote on what they want to see… do low-power radio and TV service. Could be lots of fun.

How do we do this?
Young and experienced journalists want to do.
Some foundations want to do.
Let’s ID a community.

There are two models. There’s the small community bootstrap model (7,000 – 10,000), and a city model. Don’t want to leave the cities off the table. Care about urban journalism.

One model – nothing or done poorly.
Nongeographical model – some people organized or interested around something. Don’t necessarily live next to each other.

Urban model – the first one is buffalo. Has a terrible newspaper. Milking it as a cash cow. Jim has evidence. USA today has highest subscription rate of any city in the US. Buffalo has disinvested.
Second big city model – piecemeal invention. As part of the Trib. Reinventing reporting in West Oakland. Neighborhood based journalism. Hope that will lead to a more web-centric newsroom. Changing the newsroom by infiltrating upward.

Community has identity but no local newspaper, or poor one, that’s an opportunity market.

How we would assess. What we would need to know. Would this plan make any difference?

Economic base, per capita income, Walmartization (eliminate competition, companies, newspapers don’t get advertising – some examples newspapers shut down to three or four days a week because of walmartization).
If you’re going to make a profit, decide. First year loss, 18-24 months out look for profit. Look for profit down the road – maybe not 15 percent, maybe two or five percent.
Only reason want to make a for profit, in case want to add. Start with five, go to six, need to make enough to go to six.

We want to have enough money to do what we want to do. One thing you’re saying to do that. Look at the community. The other thing we’ve talked about, do as utility, subscription model. What would that community look like?

Don’t know about characteristics, but first thing is have conversation with community itself. Invest and be part of system they’re creating. I could see that one of things you would ask of town government, invest of public TV, record keeping so that people don’t have to go to meetings to find out what’s going on. So local govt. provides basics.

Get people together – do assessment. Here’s what we’re thinking of, we think there’s some value, need some investment. Tax or volunteers. What kind of commitment do you need from a community?

What are your consumption habits? What do you do? What do you want? Has to be analysis balance among use, do, consume or want. Go in there and ask what want and you decide how can provide that or if you can provide that.

Convene a gathering people in community ask people what want. Provide you the guidance very quickly.

If you think people should support as public utility, talk about. Affinity group pays for topic, e.g. Smithsonian subscribers an affinity group.

Two interesting points. Doesn’t have to be dull as dishwater. There’s something about the added value make more interesting. ID aspects of community which have lot of passion.

Do focus groups. Voters are readers.

Care about water quality. Care about garbage collection. Make questions specific.

Do you go for community in which one or two things unique? Small town big college. Sailing community. Huge immigrant community.

7500 circulation paper. A prison town. Lansing. Shawnee – 25,000 from. Started out was the western Shawnee dispatch. Postmaster, other community on other side of the highway that other newspaper doesn’t distribute to. Focus group. Went in there. City council like us. 100 year old Shawnee herald dispatch is no longer in existence. Quality you as public publication. You put out a decent newspaper, other people notice. We’ve had state legislators, saw what you did over there, why don’t you consider that over there. We have declined about four.

We have been invited – key words. Something I know from my business.

We take people with daily newspaper backgrounds, because they know journalism better than traditional weekly newspaper editor. Their experience so affirming, almost unbelievable. Not the reception in these communities, praise, etc., people operating newspapers overwhelmed about different response. That puts fun back in journalism.

There is a role for journalism. If you’re invited in. Love and forgiveness in journalism example. Here’s what you’re trying to do. We’re identifying four or five places want to go, are you interested? Now we’re at the point where we’re trying to identify the communities. Affinity groups, demographics.

Be cautious about doing focus groups in which people don’t know about it. Most innovation – ready, fire, aim. Try something, watch the results and then make the adjustments. Big biz – ready, aim, aim, aim, aim. Darwin tells us a diverse species has better chance of survival. We need a large number of experiments.

Question for Ralph. If start as assumption that journalism is a conversation. Community component. What active involvement in what goes into this?

It has been difficult to get citizen participation, even to the extent send us your press releases, and send us info about parent-teacher organization. They have a wait and see attitude. But have to remember people not used to being served this way.

One piece of it – journalists directed by the community. Go back to Jan’s idea of tiered content. Lowest level – sports scores, etc. Middle level.

Open source. Doesn’t have to be professional journalism. Something can be done themselves, like Oh My News has done. Tier – resource to be investing in story. Clearing house editor can assign.

Story comes in from the community. Lowest, needs vetting and editing. Middle

What if the news organization owned places were owned by newspapers, waiters were reporters? South America town – every fourth storefront internet café. Terminals and coffee bar.

It’s another revenue source. Create a gathering place, fun place.

Put kiosk in bar, mall, etc.

Wi-fi them all.

StoryCorps on NPR.

Something interesting about journalism owning community gathering place. First place family, second place work, you need a third place.

Bought post office building in Urbana Champaign, independent media center. Publishing a newspaper, community wi-fi project. Setting up free wi-fi around the city to create community network that everyone can get on. Community journalism model, particularly wi-fi – cheaply bring communications to poor communities in west Chicago or rural.

In Charleston, SC, they’re starting a joint venture where when you come into smash you click on wi-fi, automatically get web site. One of problem is low penetration in newspaper. Help build your brand. Advertisers are moving towards online, if they could get more branding with local paper, I’m going to advertise some more.

Barriers for entry. Wi-fi good if you have a laptop. MIT 100 dollar laptop. That gives me more comfort. Training.

IN cities, revitalize downtown corps that might bring in other businesses.

Five six restaurants around common area.

Philly is now probably about to roll out wi-fi around west Philly, underserved area. Also underserved by Inquirer and daily news. Temple project – doing reporting. North Philly big community 250,000/300,000 city that’s as underserved as communities Ralph goes into. Other than shootings or cop stories, sees next to nothing. A whole another model, community reinvestment. Building a daily report on top of other things.

Tiers – there need to be opportunities to move up and out. Also need to be opportunities to incorporate different types of storytelling – chanters, songwriters.

If you have a café, sing a song, write a poem, and link that up with informing people.

I’m interested in getting info to people to empower people to participate in how they’re governed. A state where geographic barriers, how do you bring them in to decision-making places. We’re giving people live video or ability to testify via

Saving North Dakota model. Newspaper set up groups why young people leaving ND. Partnered with public TV and legislature. That broadcast across TV and asked legislators to watch.

More direct example. Debate on blanket primary. Covered it live. Rep. invited public TV audience to send in questions and comments became part of the legislative conversation.

You’re a convener as well. Partnerships to help have discussion.

It’s moving in both spectrums – higher tech and more high touch. There’s something about doing journalism through the arts, going back to oral traditions.

Not forcing it into ink on paper.

Resources in older people in community. Large retirement community – ready to learn and contribute. Need meaning in life more than money.

Have to have bodies, money. Let’s think about resources. People who living where we want to be. Retirees. Young people. Another one, journalist old system not for me. Be able to drop in. Might live there. Business experience retired or doing something outside. Journalism educators going on sabbatical.

Where are worker protections?

If you can’t do it, then don’t do it. I think this next phase bring health plan/retirement plan. It’s an entrepreneurial experience. I don’t think we try to get people free.

Who invests?

Invest, have stake.

In local cities, people buy in stock in a local bank. As big banks consolidate, small local banks starting up.

Funding and then pick a town. We say to local people, go to tax paying entity, say help us. This is the utility model. We’re going to go someplace, in return for voice, you invest in it. We talked about small banks. Take out a loan.

Sell community shares.

Mechanisms through small business. Forming a coop.

Talk about developing a business model. All in an offering circular as key selling points,

Individual investors who might like to do it.

I’m fed up with what the local papers; I’m willing to cough up.

May get support from local unions.

Oxford, Mississippi. Not a good newspaper sitting there.
Jonathan – Vancouver, BC
Jim – Cape Cod, non geographic and geographic community
Jean – Seoul
Lew – Buffalo, Madison
Melinda – St. Louis
Nora – Kalamazoo
Sue Ellen – Bent Harbor, Holland Michigan
Karen – Gary, Indiana and seniors
Silja – immigrant and communities of color
Cindy – Walla Walla, WA
Kent – Charlottesville and Williamsburg, VA
Michael – Battle Creek, MI
Duane – Goshen, Indiana
Ralph – student/youth roll into
Jane – West Oakland. Paris, France
Lisa –Walla Walla, WA; Florence, Italy

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What is journalism?

(As in today, right now)

Convened by Matt Thompson
Reported by Jarah Euston

– Linda Grdina
– Nora Paul
– Dan Gillmor
– Ken Sands
– Sarah Stuteville
– Jan Schaffer
– Jarah Euston

Two definitions: a lexicon and a definition by examples

American Heritage 2000 definition
1. The collecting, writing, editing, and presenting of news or news articles in newspapers and magazines and in radio and television broadcasts.
2. Material written for publication in a newspaper or magazine or for broadcast.
3. The style of writing characteristic of material in newspapers and magazines, consisting of direct presentation of facts or occurrences with little attempt at analysis or interpretation.
4. Newspapers and magazines.
5. An academic course training students in journalism.
6. Written material of current interest or wide popular appeal.

Wikipedia entry

Root of the word: jour, French for day

Ken: “journaling is not journalism” I disagree

Nora: there are different intentions that fall under the category of journalism. There’s the car wreck, there’s the opinion piece, there’s the how to baste a turkey

Sara: blogs from Iraqi soldiers were some of the best war news out there

Is this journalism:

Newspaper metro section?

Yes No
Community calendar x
Crime report x
Gonzo journalism
Photo with description x
Movie review
Katie Couric goes through yoga exercises x
Horoscope x
Funny pages x
Bridge column x
Movie listings
Sports scores x
A sermon
Oprah goes to New Orleans x

Data can be journalism, but is it always?

Sarah: contextualize data and facts and that’s what makes it journalism
Dan: London Underground photo, was that an act of journalism, I think yes

Matt: context makes it journalism is slippery

Advertizing can be useful. A non journalist doesn’t care if the movie listings are paid advertisement or not

Ken: I write ads on how to use the website. It’s purely informational but it’s a house ad. Two weeks ago I had one “what the heck’s a blog?”
Dan: an article from one publication gets printed in another as an advertisement

Transparency in itself can create journalism.

Dan: I believe its an element that replaces that unattainable objectivity


Sports scores: on a team’s website it’s journalism until they lie

Nora: maybe journalism’s like pornography, you know it when you see it.

Dan: when it comes to the law and the distinction that’s made for journalists is it’s put out for the public

Judith Miller she gathered info and didn’t actually produce anything concrete. Part of journalism is collecting the info, the act of publication is the conclusion of journalism

Ken: does the number of readers make it journalism?

Facts: A collection of facts is journalism


When you’re out to inform the public that’s part of the process but what if you’ve defined the public as your family? No court will offer protection

Soldiers trading photos of dead bodies for porn- is that journalism? Yes

Porn is NOT journalism

The kama sutra can be journalism

Service journalism is about helping you through the day. Instructions can be journalism

Funny pages: some is entertainment, some is editorialized. Mostly no, but some can be.

Graphic art can absolutely be journalism


Matt: I think everyone past the age of 25 has been a journalist at come point in their life

Does the public can about this debate? Yes, but they’ve moved on from this into “is this useful information?”

Do people need a place where they know they can always go to find “journalism”?

Jason Blair was never journalism, just turned out we were fooled

Trust through triangulation. Don’t just go to one news source

Big difference between journalism and good journalism.

Matt: my most relied upon journalism provider is wikipedia

Is a dictionary journalism?

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Saturday Morning

Saturday morning 1 pg 2

Images by Nancy Margulies

Saturday morning 2 pg 3

Saturday morning 3 pg 4

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